Saturday, 17 August 2019

2nd Year English Chapter 10 Notes - 12th class English

2nd Year English Chapter 10 Notes - 12th class English
Looking for the 2nd Year English Chapter 10 Notes - 12th class English? Here we have published the notes of chapter The jewel of the world. It also includes questions from KIPS English


 Write short answers (3-5 Lines/ Sentences) to the following questions:
Describe Abd-al-Rahman's dramatic escape from death.
 Ans. Abd-al-Rahman was on the left bank of the Euphrates River one day when horsemen of the Abbasids suddenly appeared. With his thirteen-year old brother, he jumped into the river. The younger brother became frightened, swam back and was killed, but Abd-al Rahman escaped death
 How did Abd-al-Rahman deal with the governor appointed by the Abbasid caliph to contest his rule?

 What did the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad do to contest Abd-al-Rahman's rule in Spain?
 The Abbasid caliph in Baghdad appointed a governor of Spain to contest Abd-alRahman's rule there, and two years later that caliph received the head of his governor from Abd-al-Rahman
 What did the Abbasid caliph say on receiving the head of his governor?
 When the Abbasid caliph received the head of his governor of Spain as a gift from Abd al-Rahman, his response was: "Thanks be to Allah for having placed the sea between us and such a foe!
 What did Abd-al-Rahman do to make himself strong and to beautify his capital?
 How did Abd-al-Rahman show himself in the arts of peace, and how did he beautify the cities of his domain?
 Abd-al-Rahman showed himself cqually great in the arts of peace. He beautified the cities of his domain, built an aqueduct for the supply of pure water to the capital, and ordered the construction of a wall round it. He was surrounded by 350 bodyguards and headed a standing army of 100,000 men
 Give an account of the all-round progress made by the Arabs under Abd al-Rahman II
Spain under the caliphate was one of the wealthiest states of Europe. The Arabs made wonderful progress in agriculture, technology, surgery, architecture and fine arts Cordova became a cultural center of the world and was known as "the jewel of the world"
 What did Al-Hakam do to promote learning and scholarship in Spain?
 Ans Al-Hakam was Abd-al-Rahman's successor. He was a great scholar. He patronized learning. He was generous to scholars and established twenty-seven free schools in the capital. Under him the University of Cordova became preeminent, and to it he invited professors from the East.


Write short answers (3-5 Lines/ Sentences) to the following questions:
Who overthrew the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus, and how did they treat the members of the defeated house?
 And. The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus in 750. The Abbasids rose to the caliphate by ruthlessly exterminating every member of the defeated house on whom they could lay their hands
 How did Abd-al-Rahman I look like?
 Describe the personality of Abd al-Rahman I.
 Ans Abd-al-Rahman I was a youth of twenty. He was a striking young man, tail, Ilean with sharp aquiline features and red hair. He was a youth of exceptional nerve and ability.
How and to which country did Abd-al-Rahman I make his way after his dramatie escape from death in 750?
 Ans. Afoot friendless and penniless, Abd-al-Rahman set out south-westward. He made his way after great hardships to Palestine. He found one friend there and set off again toward the west: Wandering from tribe to tribe, he finally reached Ceuta in North Africa
Who offered Abd-al-Rahman I refuge in North Africa?
His maternal uncle's, who were Berbers from the district of North Africa, offered him refuge.
 How did Abd-al-Rahman I bring Spain under subjection?
 Syrian troops from Damascus were stationed in the south of Spain. Abd-al-Rahman I made his way to them and they accepted him as leader. Later on, one southern city after another opened its gates to him. After some years he succeeded in bringing all of Spain to subjection.
 When was the Friday sermon delivered in the name of the Abbasid Caliph discontinued?
 In 773, the Friday sermon hitherto delivered in the name of the Abbasid Caliph was discontinued it. Abd-al-Rahman I discontinued it
 How did Abd-al-Rahman I show himself master in the arts of peace?
 Abd-al-Rahman I showed himself master in the art of peace by: o beautifying the cities of his domain.
 o building an aqueduct for supply of pure water to the capital.
 o crecting a palace and a garden outside Cordova
 When and by whom was the great mosque of Cordoba founded?
 Abd-al-Rahman I founded the great mosque of Cordoba in 788, two years before his death. It was built as a rival to the two mosques of Islam in Jerusalem and Makkah.
 Give a brief account of the great mosque of Cordoba?
 Abd-al-Rahman I founded the mosque of Cordoba in 788. It was completed and enlarged by his successors. The great mosque of Cordoba became the shrine of Western Islam. It was transformed into Christian cathedral in 1236. It has a forest of stately columns and spacious outer court. This marvelous structure has survived to the present day under the popular name "La Mezquita"
 Give a brief account of Caliph Abd al-Rahman's court?
 Caliph Abd-al-Rahman's court was one of the most glorious in all Europe. It received envoys from the Byzantine emperor as well as from the monarchs of Germany, Italy and France.
 How magnificent was Cordova?
 Spain's Capital, Cordova, with half a million inhabitants, seven hundred mosques and three hundred public baths was really magnificent. It yielded in magnificence only to Baghdad and Constantinople.
 Give a brief account of caliph Abd-al-Rahman I's royal palace al-Zabra.
 The royal palace, al-Zahra stood northwest of Cordova. It had four hundred rooms and apartments housing thousands of slaves and guards. Abd-al-Rahman I started its construction in 836. Marble, columns and basins with golden statues were imported or received as presents for the palace. 10,000 workmen with 1.500 beasts of burden laboured on it for 20 years.
What objects did Abd-al-Rahman I achieve with the aid of his body guard and his standing army?
 With the aid 3,750 'Slaves' and the standing army of a hundred thousand men And-alRahman I achieved two major objects. He not only kept treason and brigandage in check but reduced the influence of the old Arab aristocracy.
 How much royal revenue was collected annually in Abd-al-Rahman I's regime and where was it spent?
 The royal revenue amounted to 6245000 dinars. A third of this revenue was sufficed for the army and a third for public works, while the balance was placed in reserve.
 When did Abd-al-Rahman die?
 Abd-al-Rahman died in 790, at the ripe age of seventy-three. It is said that he had known only fourteen days of happiness in his life
What had become of the Muslim state of Spain by the time of Abd-al-Rahman III's ascension?
 By the time of the ascension of Abd-al-Rahman III in 912, civil disturbances and tribal revolts had reduced the Muslim state of Spain to the city of Cordova and its neighborhood
What did Abd-al-Rahman III do to make the Muslim state of Spain stable and sovereign?
 Ans Abd-al-Rahman II re-conquered the lost provinces one by one. He reduced them to order and administered them with wisdom and ability
 How did Umayyad caliphate begin in Spain?
 Umayyad caliphate began in Spain with the proclamation by the amir to assume the title of caliph for himself. Abd-al-Rahman III, unlike his predecessors, assumed the title of caliph for himself.
What made Cordova the most cultured city in Europe?
 Give a brief account of Cordova as one of the most cultured city in Europe.
 Cordova 1.13,000 homes, 21 suburbs, 70 libraries and numerous bookshops, mosques and palaces. It enjoyed miles of paved streets illuminated by the lights from the bordering houses. It was rich in professional like surgeons, architects, master singers or a dress-maker. All these features made Cordova the most cultured city.
 Why was Cordova styled "the jewel of the world"?
 Ans Cordova was styled "the jewel of the world" because of its fame in terms of its wonderful progress in science and fine arts. A Saxon nun in Germany styled it the jewel of the world"
 Name some of the provinces and cities of Spain under caliphate that were famous for their industrial activity and natural resources?
 Almeria was noted for its glassware and brass work Paterna in Valencia was famous for its pottery Jaen and Algarve were popular for their mines of gold and silver. Cordova was well-known for its iron and lead. Malaga was renowned for its rubies, and Toledo, like Damascus, for its swords
What was the contribution of Spanish Arabs in the field of agriculture?
 The Spanish Arabs introduced agricultural methods practised in Western Asia. They dug canals, cultivated grapes and introduced, among other plants and fruits, rice.
 apricots. peaches, pomegranates, oranges, sugar-cane, cotton and saffron
 What is the Generalife?
 Ans. Generalife is one of the best known Spanish gardens. It is proverbial for its extensive shades, falling waters and soft breeze. It was built in the form of an amphitheatre.
 Give an account of the trade/exports of Muslim Spain.
 The industrial and agricultural products of Muslim Spain were more than sufficient for domestic consumption. Seville, a big river port, exported cotton, olives and oil. Malaga and Jaen exported saffron, figs, marble and sugar. Alexandria and Constantinople found markets as far away as India and Central Asia. Especially active was the trade with Damascus, Baghdad and Makkah.
 What was the coinage system of the Spanish Arab?
 The Spanish Arab government modeled its coinage system on eastern pattern. Dinar was the gold unit while dirham was the silver unit.
Give an account of the University of Cordova.
 Ans. Under Al-Hakam, the University of Cordova, founded by Abd-al-Rahman III roe place of preeminence among the educational institutions of the world. It preceded both al-Azhar at Cairo and the Nizamiyah of Baghdad, and attracted students not only for Spain but from other parts of Europe, Africa and Asia.
 0.27 What did Al-Hakam do for the University of Cordova?
 Ans. Al-Hakam enlarged the mosque which housed the University of Cordova. He conducted water to it in lead pipes, and decorated it with mosaics brought by Byzantine artists. He salaries invited professors from the East to the university and set aside endowments for their
Describe Al-Hakam as a lover of books?
 Ans. Al-Hakam was a lover of books. His agents ransacked the bookshops of Alexandria, Damascus and Baghdad in order to buy or copy manuscripts. The books thus gathered are said to have numbered 400,000. Al-Hakam personally used several of these books, and his notes on certain manuscripts rendered them highly prized by later collectors.
Who wrote "Aghani" and what did Al-Hakam do to secure the first copy of it?
 Ans. Al-Isbahani, a descendent of the Umayyads, composed Aghani in Iraq. Al-Hakam sent the author a thousand dinars in order to secure the first copy of the book.
Which dynasty did Abd-al-Rahman belong to?
 Ans. Abd-al-Rahman belonged to the Umayyad dynasty which was overthrown in Damascus by the Abbasid family.

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