Sunday, 18 August 2019

2nd Year English Chapter 15 Notes - 12th class English

2nd Year English Chapter 15 Notes - 12th class English
Looking for the 2nd Year English Chapter 15 Notes - 12th class English? Here we have published the notes of chapter Mustafa Kamal. It also includes questions from KIPS English


 Write short answers (3-5 Lines/ Sentences) to the following questions:
What was the attitude of the Turkish government towards the Allies after World War I?
 After World War 1 all the old liberals and the Padisha himself were quite eager to where collaborate with the Allies. Their conception of the best interests of the nation was that of loyalty to the Armistice and co-operation with the Allies, the occupying conquerors.
 was Why was Mustafa Kamal sent to Anatolia? the "Sovereign touch.
 In Eastern Anatolia, a general of Turkish army Kiyazim Karabekar with some soldiers refused to collaborate with both the Allies and the Government. The Turks started steadily growing bolder against Allies and the Padishah. This attitude of the Turks was alarming for the Allies and Istanbul itself, and so Mustafa Kamal was sent to deal with the situation on the spot.
 What was the reaction of the Turkish patriots to the intention of the Allies to the partition of the Ottoman Empire?
 As the intention of the Allies to the partition of Turkey was known, Turkish patriotism was no longer vague and undecided. It was a flame burning in the hearts of men and women of all classes-a flame of anger and hatred.
 What were the activities of Mustafa Kamal at Anatolia?
 Write a note on Mustafa Kamal's activities in Anatolia 
At a secret meeting of the patriots in Anatolia Mustafa Kamal sketched out his plan of resistance. He set up a temporary government in Anatolia, and set out to tour the villages. He started preaching resistance and in every place appointed representatives fo form centers of patriotic revolt
 Why did Mehmet order Mustafa Kamal to return to Istanbul?
 Why did Mehmet order Mustafa Kamal to return to the capital, and what was Mustafa Kamal's reply?
 Sent as a governor of East provinces from Istanbul, Mustafa Kamal had joined the patriots. He also sketched a plan of resistance against the Allied forces. As soon a Mehmet heard of his activities against the government, he ordered Mustafa Kamal to return to the capital immediately.
 What was Mustafa Kamal reply to Mehmet when he was ordered to report himself immediately to Istanbul?
 In response to Mehmet's order to report immediately to Istanbul, Mustafa Kamal sent the most momentous telegram in the history of the Ottoman Empire. He wrote: "I shall stay in Anatolis until the nation has won its Independence."
 How did Mehmet try to regain Anatolia from the Nationalists?
 Mehmet tried to regain Anatolian from the Nationalists by subtlety. When Mehmet IV realized he was losing ground in Anatolia, he unexpectedly proclaimed himself willing to summon a government pleasing to the Nationalists. The patriots were absolutely taken in by this trick. They centered upon Mehmet and shifted their activities to Istanbul
 Why did the plan of Mehmet fail to capture Mustafa Kamal?
 Why did Mehmet's plan fail to trap Mustafa Kamal?
 Although all the Nationalists shifted their activities to Istanbul, Mustafa Kemal still continued his mission. He organized large regular troops of the old Imperial army peasants and even women in large armed formations. Seeing this reunion, the Allied forces evacuated the interior. In response the Allies dissolved the National Assembly and arrested many of the patriots. The goverment in Istanbul ended and Mehmet's plan failed at last
What were the terms offered to Turkey by the Allies?
 Ans. The terms offered by the Allies are as follows: A small and helpless Ottoman Empire would be entirely under the supervision of the Allied powers.
 All the Arab provinces would become mandated Territories The whole of eastern Anatolia would be a large Greek district. Cicilia would go to the French. The Ottoman capital itself would be an international centre under the control of Britain, French, and Italy. Only the immediate hinterland of Istanbul would remain "Turkey in Europe."
Give an account of the Greek attack and its defeat Ans.
 When did the Greeks attack and how did the two people fight?
 On the 21 August, 1921, the Greeks attacked. The fight continued almost man to man for fourteen days under the burning heat of the sun in Sakarya. By the 4 of September the Greeks were at the end of their strength. On the 12 the Greeks began to retreat. At last, towards the end of the August, 1922 Mustafa Kamal announced victory
 Give an account of the departure of Mehmet from Istanbul Ans
 Describe the scene of Mehmet's leaving his palace and going into exile.
 On 17 of November, 1922, a British motor ambulance arrived at the palace where Mehmet was staying. Some baggage was brought out and placed in the car and an elderly man followed. Thus, the last of the Sultans was on his way to exile.
 Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa Kamal with reference to the position of women.
 What was the most striking reform of Mustafa Kamal, and what did he say on the subject of women's rights?
 The abolition of the veil was the most striking reform of Mustafa Kamal "Our nation has decided to be strong," he had said, "and our absolute need today is the higher education of women. Thus, he uplifted the position of women in the real sense.
 Do you agree that Mustafa Kamal is the founder of Turkey?
 Sum up in a few sentences the work of Mustafa Kamal as a great nation-builder?
 There is no doubt that Mustafa Kamal is the founder of Turkey. The democratization of the nation and the awakening of the people is the great work of Mustafa Kamal as a great nation-builder. He educated the people, simplified the language and initiated great development and construction schemes in the country.


 Write short answers (3-5 Lines/ Sentences) to the following questions:
 How had the armies of the democracies been welcomed after the World War I was over?
 Since when has Turkey had been fighting continuously, according to Wilfrid F. Castle?
 Ans. The armies of the democracies had been welcomed not as conquerors, but as liberators. The Turks themselves were too glad to be able to lay down arms after continuous fighting since 1911.
 Who was in power at Istanbul when the war was over?
 A goverment formed from the old Liberals was in power at Istanbul. Its members and the Padishah himself were eager to collaborate with the Allies.
 Give an account of Allies control of Turkey after World War I?
 At Istanbul the old British Embassy became the British High Commission. It was supported by military and naval detachments. Allied officers were supervising the police and the ports. The normal machinery of the government was practically superseded by orders and suggestions from the Allies 0.4
 What plan of resistance did Mustafa Kamal sketch at a secret meeting in Anatolia?
 The plan was that first of all, guerilla bands must hold up the Cracks. Covered by these irregular encounters the patriots must build up the National army. It was decided that the army must be built without any help from Mehmed IV or any one at Istanbul.
 What was Mustafa Kamal's reply to Mehmet's order of returning to Constantinople?
 Mustafa Kamal utterly refused to Mchemt's orders. Rather he urged the Padishah to come over to Anatolia and himself take the lead against the Greeks and all the foreign enemies.
 What was Mehmet's reply to Mustafa Kamal's invitation that urged him to take the lead against the foreign enemies?
 Mehmet's reply to Mustafa Kamal's invitation was a dictatorial command. He said: "The rebel must report himself immediately to Istanbul."
 What did Mustafa Kamal suggest when Mehmet urged the Nationalists to transfer their activities to Istanbul?
 Why did Mustafa Kamal suggest for the parliament to sit in Ankara?
 Mustafa Kamal suggested that the parliament should sit in the upland town of Ankara. He suggested so because the parliament there would be centrally situated, well protected, free, and absolutely independent of the Allies in thoroughly Turkish Town.
 What did Mustafa Kamal do when the Nationalists left him alone to join Mehmet?
 Mustafa Kamal made exceptionally good use of the freedom which the absence of the talkers had given him. He kept on convincing and organizing people to join the cause against Allies.
What did an American medical practitioner chronicle about the daily deterioration of the position in Anatolia?
 She chronicled the deterioration in these words: The fringe gets worse steadily..a general massacre of the Armenians is expected . All night long the skies are redlighted by the raging fires, and the cannons roar and the heavens shake ... The whole city is overhung with clouds of smoke. The Turks are bolder all the time."
 What did the patriots do when the Allies put Istanbul under a collective arrest and dissolved "the National Assembly"?
 When the Allies put Istanbul under a collective arrest and dissolved the National Assembly," leading patriots hid or escaped. They rejoined Mustafa Kamal in Ankara to continue their struggle against the Allies
 How did the revolutionary Turkish Grand National Assembly come into being?
 The Nationalists who escaped from the hands of Allies met Mustafa Kamal in Ankara On the 23 of April, 1920, these Nationalists founded the revolutionary Turkish Grand National Assembly with Mustafa Kamal as president.0.13 Ans.
 Give an account of the functions of the revolutionary Grand National Assembly?
 The first act of the Grand National Assembly was to make clear to the world the position of the new Turkish Government. It also announced that the Grand National Assembly sitting in Ankara would preside over the destiny of Turkey. As long as the capital was in the hands of the foreigners, all orders from Istanbul were automatically null and void.
 Why did the Turkish people reject the treaty?
 What would have been the result if the terms of the Allies had been accepted?
 Why were the terms of the Allies not accepted?
 The terms of the Allies were not widely accepted because accepting them was like a death sentence not only of the Ottoman Empire but of Turkey itself.
 How did the patriots react to the idea of entertaining the terms of treaty by the Ottoman Government at Istanbul?
 The patriots reacted by branding the Ottoman Government as puppet government of traitors and dotards. After this, almost the entire Turkish nation accepted the Turkish government at Ankara
 Give an account of the retreat of the Greek?
 Izmir was crowded with refugees after the defeat of the Greek in the battle against the Turks. The ships were taking back only the Greek soldiers but not the Greek and Armenian population. The Allied battleships were powerless to do anything except to take away as army refugees on bored as possible.
 How did Mustafa Kamal at last end the Ottoman Government in istanbul?
 Three days after the assumption of power by Mustafa Kamal. fire broke out in several parts of the city. The greater part of Izmir was reduced to ashes. Mustafa suggested the Ankara government to make an end of the puppet show in Istanbul, and to abolish the Sultanate. Finally after the coup d'etat Riffat carried out at Istanbul. the Ottoman Empire ended
When was the name of the Ottoman Empire wiped from the slate of history?
 On the 29th October, 1923, the name of the Ottoman Empire was wiped from the slate of history foundation of the Turkish Republic was proclaimed with salute of hundred and How was the foundation of the Turkish Republic proclaimed. The foundation of the Turkish Republic was proclaimed with a salute of hundred and one guns with Mustafa Kamal as the President and General Ismet Inonu as the Prime Minister.
 What was Mustafa Kemal's first object after he came into power?
 On assuming power, Mustafa Kamal's first objective was to educate the people. This was quite a gigantic task.
Why was educating people a gigantic task?
 What were the two problems which Mustafa Kamal faced to educate the people?
 Ans. Educating people was a gigantic task for state education was unknown in Turkey Mustafa had to face two major problems in this regards to teach the masses and to train as many teachers as possible.
 How did Mustafa Kamal make people learn the use of the Roman script?
 Ans. First, Mustafa Kamal replaced the old script with Roman script. Thereupon he set out on a series of tours round the country to demonstrate how the new script should be used. He also tested people on the most unexpected occasions, naming a day, by which everyone was to have learned new script.
Why did Mustafa Kamal simplify the Turkish language?
 Ans. Mustafa Kamal simplified the Turkish language because: Educated speech under the Ottoman Empire had been a mixture of Turkish, Arabic and Persian.
 Elaborate modes of address and flowery phrases were out of place in the modern world.
 Discuss the educational reforms of Mustafa Kamal.
 Ans. On assuming power the first and foremost objective of Mustafa Kamal to educate people. For this he changed the old Turkish script to Roman script. He also simplified the language. He got all the foreign word removed from the Turkish language.
Why were the old titles and nobilities abolished?
 Ans The old titles and nobilities were abolished because in the new world created by Mustafa Kamal there was no need for the old titles and nobilities. In this new world the only nobility was the nobility of effort
 What reforms did Mustafa Kamal introduce regarding the headdress?
 In 1925, Mustafa Kamal declared the abolition of the use of national headdress, Fez. He made compulsory the wearing of hats
What were Mustafa Kamal's views about women?
 Ans. Mustafa Kamal was an ardent advocate of women's rights. He believed that for the Mustafa Kamal was an ardent advocate of women's rights. He believed that for the Turkish nation to be strong. women must be given higher education and instructed in every field of life.
Give an account of industrial and economic development made in Turkey after Mustafa Kamal came into Power?
 In 1919, there was only one railway track in Turkey, and judged by modern standards no roads at all. Mustafa Kamal inaugurated great development and construction schemes both for railways and motor roads. In 1919, there were 150 factories in Turkey, in 19332000 The banking system was organized and the Ottoman public debt was reduced to one-tenth of its former size.
 How have the changes in all branches of Turkish life been stupendous compared with those of Western Europe?
 When Mustafa Kamal set to work, the mental and political development of the masses in Turkey was on a level with that of the people of Western Europe in the mid eighteenth century. The Turks traversed in a few years the road which the people of Western Europe took 150 years to travel. Obviously, the change is stupendous.

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