Sunday 18 August 2019

2nd Year English Chapter 14 Notes - 12th class English

2nd Year English Chapter 14 Notes - 12th class English
Looking for the 2nd Year English Chapter 14 Notes - 12th class English? Here we have published the notes of chapter Louis Pasture. It also includes questions from KIPS English


 Write short answers (3-5 Lines/Sentences) to the following questions:
 Where was Pasteur born?
 Describe the early life of Pasteur.
 Pasteur was bom in quite humble circumstances, at Dole in France in 1822. When he was two years old the family moved from Dole to Arbois. Here Pasteur was sent to school at the Communal College. At first. Pasteur had no interest in books but devoted his attention to fishing and making sketches of his companions. However, he soon developed the passion for work.
 Why was Pasture called a patriot more than a scientist?
 How patriotic was Pasteur?
 Give some instances of Pasteur's patriotism.
 How would you explain that Pasteur was more of a patriot than of a scientist?
 Pasteur was perhaps even more of a patriot than of a scientist.
 In 1884, when Europe was politically upheaved, Pasteur enrolled himself in the National Guard. Seeing one day an altar labeled "autel de la patrie", he promptly placed on it all his worldly wealth -150 Francs.
 In 1870 when France was on the verge of war with Germany, Pasteur tried to enroll himself in the National Guard but he was refused on the score of physical incapacity.
 What do we mean by spontaneous generation?
 Spontaneous generation means that life comes into being on its own. Pasteur proved that it was not a fact.
 For what problem did the French Academy offer a prize?
 How did Pasteur prove that spontaneous generation was not a fact?
 In 1860, the French Academy offered a prize for the solution of the problem whether or not spontaneous generation was a fact. Pasteur proved that if a substance be sufficiently heated to destroy all life and if the air in contact with it be filtered, then the substance does not alter.
 Describe the importance and popularity of the silkworm Industry in France?
 The keeping of silkworms was one of the chief home-industries in France. Practically every family set aside the best room in the house for silkworms. The women got up even during the night to feed them, and to see that the temperature of the room was just right.
 What cures did Pasteur suggest for the silkworm disease?
 What help did Pasteur render in curing the silkworm disease in this country?
 Pasteur suggested collecting the eggs, laid by each moth separately and only keeping those derived from healthy parents. He suggested the use of microscope for doing so. He also suggested avoiding overcrowding. uncleanliness, over-heating, and unhealthy conditions generally
 How did Pasteur discover the treatment for the cattle disease, Anthrax?
 He cultivated the anthrax bacillus in such a way that it became only mildly poisonous. Later when he introduced these weakened germs into an animal's blood, only slight symptoms of anthrax appeared. The disease did not take the deadly form in that animal.
 This method proved an effective cure for anthrax0.8 What is the method of making vaccines?
 What are vaccines and how did Pasteur discover them?
 How did Pasteur arrive at the method of attenuating germs?
 Once, on his return from a holiday, Pasteur found all his cultivations of the germs dead or dying. He proceeded to inoculate various birds with those dead or dying germs and found that the birds showed signs of illness but recovered. He then inoculated the same birds with a fresh lot of virulent germs of chicken-cholera, and he was amazed at the result that the birds still resisted the disease. Later on, this method was called
 When was the first human being treated of Rabies?
 In 1885 a boy, Joseph Meister, was brought to Paris for treatment. He had been bitten by a mad dog two days before. Pasteur undertook the treatment of the boy. He continued inoculations for ten days and the boy was absolutely cured of hydrophobia.
How did Pasteur show the way to other scientists?
 Give an account of the discoveries that followed Pasteur's work 
The fame of Pasteur's success stirred up other scientists to try similar methods of cure for other disease. In the next ten years, they discovered the germs of consumption.
 diphtheria, typhoid, lock-jaw and cholera.


 Write short answers (3-5 Lines/Sentences) to the following questions:
 Was Pasteur interested in chemistry?
 Yes, Pasteur was interested in chemistry. He was so much interested in chemistry that he used to embarrass the professor of that subject with unanswerable questions.
 How would the professor react the Pasteur's unanswerable questions?
 The professor of chemistry was disapproved of saying that he didn't know. Therefore, on Pasteur's unanswerable question he used to try to keep Pasteur in his place" by telling him that questions were to be asked by the Teacher of the Scholar, and not vice versa.
 Why did Pasteur refuse to enter the great Ecole Normale in Paris?
 In 1842, when he was twenty, he went in for the entrance examination to the great Ecole Normale in Paris. He came out fourteenth on the list. He got so disappointed for not getting a higher place that he refused to enter.
 Why did Pasteur forget his wedding ceremony?
 Pasteur forgot his wedding because of his absorption in his work. It is said that he was so much busy in his work on the wedding day that he entirely forgot the ceremony and had to be fetched by a friend.
What happened when Pasteur asked for arbitration, to settle the argument over spontaneous generation?
 In order to settle the argument over spontaneous generation through experiment, Pasteur asked for arbitration. The French Academy appointed a commission. On the appointment day, Pasteur appeared loaded with apparatus. His opponents, however, had none. Pasteur did his experiment successfully and won the prize.
 How valuable was Pasteur's work on Spontaneous generation?
 This work on spontaneous generation was of great value because it stimulated other scientists to study the habits of germs. Much of our modern knowledge of these invisible but very active plants sprang from Pasteur's discoveries.
 What did Pasteur do when France and Germany were plunged into war in 1870?
 When France and Germany were plunged into war, Pasteur was filled with sorrow and anxiety, and with loathing of Germany. He wrote to the University of Bonn, asking that his name should be removed from the Faculty of the University.
 How much valuable wa Pasteur's work on brewing?
 Pasteur's works on brewing was of tremendous value in the brewing industry. Huxley once said that Pasteur's work on fermentation alone saved France more than enough to - pay the indemnity of the Franco-German War.
Describe the Importance of Pasteur's work on fermentation. What effects did it bave?
 And Pasteur's work on fermentation had very important effects on medicine, surgery, and public health. His work was an inspiration for Lord Lister's work on inflammation of wounds. Lord Lister proved that inflammation was also a type of fermentation caused by bacteria on getting into wounds.
 Why were surgeons unwilling to operate except as a last and desperate resort in Pre-Listerian days?
 In Pre-Listerian days, inflammation of wounds after operations was common. It often made amputation necessary, and was not enough to save the patient's life. About 33% of deaths from major operations occurred in those days. Such horrible results kept the surgeons from operations except as a last resort
 What made Pasteur best known to the man in the street?
 Pasteur is best known to the man in the street for his work on mysterious epidemic of silkworm diseases. This disease had been devastating the silk-industry in the South of France for fifteen years.
 What was done to cure the silkworm disease before Pasteur come to rescue?
 What were the effects of the disease?
 In 1849 the silkworms were attacked by the disease. It was thought at first that eggs were at fault, and fresh ones were brought from other countries. But the disease reappeared in the first generation of descendants of the imported worms.
 Why did Pasteur at first refuse to investigate the silkworm disease?
 At first, Pasteur refused to investigate the disease because he was a chemist and not a naturalist. He had never touched a silkworm in his life.
 Describe the importance of Pasteur's work on the silkworm disease?
 It has been estimated that before Pasteur came to the rescue, France had lost forty million francs through silkworm disease. An even more important result of this work was that it led Pasteur on to study the infectious diseases of the higher animals, including man.
 What was the significance of Pasteur's preventive treatment of the cattle-disease named anthrax?
 The protective treatment for anthrax safe-guarded millions of sheep and cattle. Reports from France and Hungry showed that on many farms the death-rate from anthrax had fallen from 10% to 1% among sheep and from 5% to less than 1% among cattle.
 What conclusion did Pasteur draw from his experiment of Inoculating the weak germs Into a healthy animal?
 Pasteur concluded that weak germs inoculated into healthy animals would produce mild type of illness, but the inoculation would protect the animal from the attack by the virulent form of that disease.
 Describe the Rabies disease.
 Hydrophobia or Rabies is a horrible illness. It is produced by the bite of a mad dog. The characteristics of hydrophobia are spasms, restlessness, shudders at the least breath of air, an ardent thirst, an absolute impossibility of swallowing water, convulsive movements and fits of furious rage.
How did Pasteur attenuate the germs of Rabies?
 How did Pasteur attenuate the germs of Rabies?
 How did Pasteur discover the cure for Hydrophobia?
 Pasteur took the spinal cord of a rabbit suffering from Rabies and exposed it to dry air in order to weaken it. After 14 days it was harmless. He then introduced the attenuated spinal cord into dogs which rendered them immune to hydrophobia.
 2. 19 Give an account of the discoveries that followed Pasteur's work.
 3. Give an account of the discoveries that followed Pasteur's work 4. OR
How did Pasteur show the way to other scientists?
 What was the outcome of Pasteur's discoveries?
 The fame of Pasteur's success stirred up other scientists. They started trying same methods of cure for other diseases as tried by Pasteur. That's why, in the ten years between 1880 and 1890 they discovered the germs of consumption, diphtheria, typhoid, lock-jaw, cholera, and Malta fever.
 How much useful did the protective inoculation prove for typhoid and plague?
 Ans. The protective inoculation for typhoid and plague proved amazingly useful. In 1896-97 the protective inoculation treatments for typhoid and plague were discovered. In India during 1913, 93% of the British garrison were inoculated, and deaths from typhoid fell from 300-600 to only 20.
How can we fight malaria?
 Ans. We can fight it in two ways:
 by destroying the breeding-places of the mosquito by protecting man from the bite of the mosquito
What is a tsetse-fly, and what disease does it cause?
 Ans It is a biting fly found in central Africa It feeds on the blood of humans and animals. It causes several diseases including sleeping-sickness.
 How has the world expressed gratitude to Pasteur?
 As an expression of world gratitude, the Pasteur Institute was built in Paris. It was built with subscriptions which came from all parts of the world. It was opened in 1888, and was the joy of Pasteur's few remaining years.
 What change did Pasteur bring in the realm of disease?
 Pasteur brought the facts of disease and death from the realm of supernatural and miraculous into the realm of the natural. Disease and death were the great mysteries, where the occult prevailed. Pasteur abolished all these superstitions.
 What superstitions about different diseases prevailed before Pasteur?
 It was superstitiously believed that the malign influence of the moon caused lunacy, a person suffering from fever and epilepsy was possessed by demons, or that tuberculosis was the King's Evil, to be cured only by the "Sovereign touch."

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