Sunday, 18 August 2019

2nd Year English Chapter 13 Notes - 12th class English

2nd Year English Chapter 13 Notes - 12th class English
Looking for the 2nd Year English Chapter 13 Notes - 12th class English? Here we have published the notes of chapter Sir Alexander Flemming. It also includes questions from KIPS English

TEXT BOOK EXERCISE

 Write short answers (3-5 Lines/ Sentences) to the following questions
What are antiseptics and what Is antiseptic method ? 
Antiseptics are chemicals like used to kill germs like carbolic acid and iodine. The purpose of the method is to prevent germs from getting into the body.
What was the chief defect of the antiseptic method?
 OR
 Why was the use of carbolic acid abandoned?
 Ans. Injecting carbolic acid was abandoned because it destroyed Leucocytes, the natural Armour of human body against disease, along with germs. To kill all the germs the dose would have had to be strong enough to kill the patient too.
 What is the part played by the while cells of the blood in the human body?
 OR
 Who discovered the body's natural armour against disease, and what did he show?
 Leucocytes are the natural armour of body against a disease. It was Metchnikoff, a bacteriologist, who discovered the leucocytes. He showed when germs enter the body, they are immediately attacked by white cells from the whole neighbourhood
 Give an account of the early life of Fleming.
 Alexander Fleming was bom on a farm near Darvel, in Ayrshire, in 1881. He was the youngest of a family of eight. His father died when Fleming was only seven, and his elder brother, Hugh, took over the management of the farm. At ten he went to Darvel School, and at twelve to Kilmarnock Academy. At fourteen he went to London to study at the Regent Street Polytechnic
 Describe bow Fleming discovered penicillin.
 Fleming was carrying out a series of experiments on staphylococcus in his laboratory at St. Mary's. As Fleming uncovered his culture plate to examine the germs, a mould spore dropped on the plate. Having settled on the plate, the mould began to grow, and almost at once the microbes round it began to disappear. Fleming got interested in it and tested its effects. Fleming named this mould spore penicillin.
 In what respect is penicillin better than the chemical antiseptics?
 OR
 How strong did penicillin prove as compared to carbolic acid?
 Penicillin was three times as strong as carbolic acid. What was more important was thal, unlike carbolic acid and all the other chemical antiseptics, it had no harmful effect at all on leucocytes. LA er Flcmin
What do you know of the Oxford team?
 OR
 How did the Oxford team succeed in producing practical concentration of penicillin?
 The Oxford team included trained chemists as well as bacteriologists, and had all the equipment that Fleming had lacked; yet it a long, hard struggle before they produced a practical concentration of penicillin.
 Write A note on penicillin u n wonder drug.
 Penicillin was welcomed as a wonder drug because it revolutionized the healing of war wounds. It saved countless lives, and thus proved to be the strongest weapon ever made in the fight against disease,
 Why was Fleming not proud of his discovery?
 OR
 Was Fleming proud of his discovery of penicillin?
 Fleming was not proud of his discovery of penicillin. When people thanked him for saving their lives, he always said that Nature made penicillin, and he had just found it. He insisted that he had discovered it by chance.
Why couldn't penicillin have been discovered in the research laboratories of  America?
OR
 How did Fleming shock the Americans as he visited research laboratories in Detroit?
 Laboratories in Detroit were gleaming, dustless, air-conditioned, and sterilized There culture plates were never contaminated. Fleming shocked the Americans by saying that penicillin could never have been discovered in their labs because there was no way in for a mould spore
 What was the benefit of Fleming's achievement?
 OR
 Fleming's achievement paved the way for other discoveries in the medical field What are they?
 Fleming's achievement was not only the discovery of penicillin, he opened up a new world of science. He provoked others to seek new antibiotics, particularly in moulds and fungi, and the researchers discovered new drugs, such as streptomycin which is the best known at present

KIPS EXERCISE

 Write short answer (3-5 Lines/ Sentences) to the following questions:
What is the difference between a septic and antiseptic method ? 
Aseptic method means to use heat instead of chemicals to sterilize instruments, clothing and other operating-theater equipment. Antiseptics are chemicals like carbolic acid and iodine. The purpose of both these methods is to prevent germs from getting into the wounds.
 Q. Q.2 What did Pasteur discover about disease?
 Ans. Louis Pasteur discovered that disease was caused by living organisms so small that they could not be seen with the naked eye.
 How did Pasteur and Lister revolutionize the theory and practice of medicine?
 Pasteur discovered germs, and Lister killed them. Applying Pasteur's discovery to surgery, these two men together revolutionized the theory and practice of medicine.
 How can germs be destroyed?
 Since germs are alive, they can be killed. They can be destroyed by heat or poisoned by certain chemicals, called antiseptics.
 How did the surgeons infect their patients in the past?
 What were the surgeons ignorant of in the past?
 In the past surgeons unknowingly infected their patients on the operating-table with germs, chiefly from their surgical instruments.
 How did Lister sterilize his surgical Instruments.
 OR
 What did Lister do to prove his patients from being infected with germs?
 Lister sterilized his surgical instruments with carbolic acid. He also used it to kill the germs on his hands, and on the patient's skin. Then he could cut his patients open without fear of infecting them with the germs of disease.
 What was disease according to Metchnikoff?
 Metchnikoff showed that the disease was a fight between the leucocytes and the germs, and it ended only with the death of the germs or the death of the patient.
What is the role of leucocytes?
 Ans: It was a bacteriologist named Metchnikoff who discovered the body's natural armour against disease-the leucocytes or white cells of the blood. He showed that when germs enter the body, they are immediately attacked by white cells.
How did the Flemings come to be known as a medical family?
 OR
 Why was Fleming's family called doctor's family?
 One of Flemings' three brothers was an oculist and the other two were opticians. One of his sisters married a doctor and another married A veterinary surgeon. Thus, the Flemings, bom on the land, A become medical family.
How did Fleming start his early career?
 Ans. Fleming was only seven when his father died. At ten he went to Darvel School. When he was twelve, he went to Kilmarnock Academy, a fourteen he went to London and studied at the Regent Street Polytechnic. At sixteen he took a job as a clerk in a shipping firm.
 There was not enough money for profession or trade. At twenty he received a share in a legacy and studied medicine at St. Mary's. For eight years he worked in Wright laboratory
 Why did Fleming take a job as a clerk?
 When Alexander left the Polytechnic, at sixteen, he took a job as a clerk in a shipping firm in Leaden-hall Street because there was not enough money for him to study for a profession or trade.
 What helped Fleming to train for a career, and wbo pushed him into medicine?
 OR
 When did Fleming get a share from legacy?
 At twenty, Alexander received a share in a legacy. It was not large, but enough for him to train for a career with better prospectus. It was his brother Thomas who pushed him into medicine.
 Why did Fleming choose St. Mary's to study for a profession?
 There were twelve medical schools in London, and Fleming knew nothing about any of them. He chose St. Mary's only because he had played water-polo against the Hospital team.
 How did Fleming start his work in fighting Infected wounds?
 For eight years Fleming worked in Wright's laboratory and tried to find a means to help the leucocytes in their fight against invading bacteria. He made experiments with different chemicals. Finally, in 1922, he discovered first natural antiseptic called lysozyme.
 What was the major problem during the warfare?
 OR
 What was it that Fleming Came face to face with when be joined RAM.C. In 1914?
 In 1914, Fleming joined the R. A. M. C., and came face to face with one of the main medical problems of the First World War. The major problem during the warfare was the treatment of infected wounds.
 When and by what was Lister's antiseptic method of surgery replaced?
 By 1914 Lister's antiseptic method of surgery had been largely replaced by the aseptic method. Instend of chemicals heat was now used to sterilize instruments, clothing and other operating-theater equipment.
Why we aseptic method not successful especially in 1914?
 Ans: Aseptic method was not successful especially in 1914, because of the abundance of the infected wounds. For the first time in warfare high explosives were used extensively, and wounds that were not infected were rare indeed. So, aseptic method in the form of prevention was not enough. In nearly every case the wound was infected before treatment could be vegan.
Why was the surgeon's problem the same as that of a physician treating disease before penicillin was discovered?
 Ans. The surgeon's problem was the same as that of a physician treating disease: he had to The surgeon's problem was the same as that of a physician treating disease: he had to try to kill the germs without damaging the leucocytes that were already fighting against them.
What were the early attempts of medical officers in treating wounds?
Medical officers treated infected wounds with chemical antiseptics before penicillin was discovered. They applied carbolic acid, iodine, and other chemicals to open wounds in order to destroy as many germs as possible
 What did Wright and Fleming discover about the chemical antiseptics, and what did they insist?
 Ans. Wright and Fleming discovered that the treatment of infected wounds was doing more Wright and Fleming discovered that the treatment of infected wounds was doing more harm than good. They found that chemical antiseptic was more harmful to the leucocytes than to the germs, and in some cases the antiseptic actually helped the germs to grow and multiply.
  How did Fleming discover lysozyme?
 Ans: Fleming discovered lysozyme just by chance. He was suffering from catarrh, and began to examine his own nasal secretions. In these secretions he discovered a substance that destroyed microbes on the culture plate. He called it lysozyme.
 Why was Lysozyme different from other chemicals?
 OR
 Did Lysozyme prove useful in the treatment of wound infection?
 Lysozyme proved to be of little practical use in the treatment of disease, but the discovery was of great importance as it proved to be the forerunner of penicillin. It was different from other chemicals because it was the first natural antiseptic.
What did the discovery of lysozyme bring Fleming?
 OR
 What was the benefit of the discovery of lysozyme to Fleming?
 The discovery of lysozyme did not bring Fleming fame, but it nised his position in the world of science. The medical profession began to pay more attention to what he said.
Fleming discovered penicillin by chance. Comment.
 Fleming was carrying out a series of experiments on staphylococcus. As Fleming uncovered his culture plate to examine the germs, a mould spore dropped on the plate and began to grow. microbes round it began to disappear. Thus, Fleming discovered penicillin by chance.
 What did Fleming do to produce the anti-bacterial substance free of the mould?
 Fleming produced the anti-bacterial substance free of the mould by plating the mould on a meat broth. It grew on the surface as a felt like mass, and tumor the broth yellow. The fluid was strained and the results were as favourable as before.
 Why did Fleming fall to concentrate penicillin in its crude form?
 Fleming was a bacteriologist. He tried to concentrate the drug but failed. He lacked both the training and the equipment needed for the job. However, he published his findings, and continued to proclaim his faith in penicillin 0.27
 How did the world come to know about the discovery of penicillin?
 penicillin While penicillin was being welcomed as a wonder drug, the name of its discoverer was hardly known outside the medical profession. Then Sir Almroth Wright wrote a letter to The Times telling the world who had made the discovery
When was Fleming knighted and awarded Nobel prize?
 OR
 How was Fleming acknowledged and honoured for his discovery of penicillin?
 Fleming was knighted in 1944 and awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1945 Governments and universities all over the world showered him with honours. He had to travel widely, attend functions, make speeches, and receive thanks.
 Why were the Americans amazed when they visited Fleming's laboratory?
 The Americans visited the laboratory and were amazed. They said it was like the backroom of an old-fashioned drug-store." They found it hard to believe that penicillin could have been discovered there.
 When and how did Fleming discover the first natural antiseptic, and what did be call it?
 In 1922, Fleming was suffering from catarrh, and he began to examine his own nasal Secretions. In these secretions he discovered cred substance that destroyed microbes on the culture plate. He called it lysozyme.
What did Fleming say about the laboratories in Detroit?
 Ans When Flaming visited laboratories in Detroit, he shocked his hosts by saying "Wonderful, but penicillin could never have been discovered in a lab like this." Actually the laboratories there were dustless, air-conditioned and sterilized where there wa chance for the mold to be blown in.
How did Fleming become famous ?
 Ans. While penicillin was being welcomed as a wonder drug, the name of its discoverer was hardly known outside the medical profession. Then Sir Almroth Wright wrote a letter to The Times telling the world who had made the discovery. And Flaming became famous 

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