# 10th Physics Notes Chapter 3 Spherical Mirrors and Lenses

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Q.1: Which lens is used for the long sightedness?
Ans. A convex lens is used for the correction of long sightedness Q.2: What are spherical mirrors? Also write their type.
Ans. A portion of the reflecting surface of a hollow sphere in called spherical mirror. They are of two types.
i). Concave mirror and convex mirror
Q.3: Define concave mirror.
Ans. The mirror whose inner curved surface is reflecting is called concave mirror.
Q.4: Define center of curvature.
Ans. The center of sphere of which a concave or convex mirror is a part is called center of curvature.
Q.5: What is radius of curvature?
Radius of sphere of which a concave or convex mirror is a part is called the radius of curvature.
Q.6: Define aperture
Ans. The front side of spherical mirror is circular. The diameter of this circle is called aperture.
Q.7: Define principal axis and principal focus.
The line passing through center of curvature and pole of mirror is called principal axis and the point at which rays after reflection converge is called principal focus
Q.8: Distinguish between real and virtual image.
Ans. These image, which can be obtain on the screen is called real image and image, which cannot obtain on screen is called virtual image.
Q.9: Define focal length (L).
Ans. The distance between principal focus and pole of the mirror is called focal length
Q.10: What is linear magnification?
The ratio of height of image to the height of the object is called linear magnification. It height of image IB
formula is m= height of object OA
Q.11: Define laws of refraction.
Ans.
(1) The refracted ray, incident ray and normal lie on the same plane.
(ii) The ratio of sine of angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is constant. This constant is called refractive index.
Q.12: Define critical angle.
(L B 08)
Ans. The angle of incidence in denser medium for which the angle of refraction is 90° In rare medium is called critical angle.
Q.13: What is total internal reflection?
Ans. When light enter from denser medium to rare medium, the angle of incident is greater than the critical angle, then the ray is reflected totally inside the same medium and does not emerge out from the denser medium. This is called total internal reflection..
Q.14: What is angle of deviation and minimum deviation? (LB) Ans. The angle at which prism deviates the incidence ray is called angle of deviation and the minimum value of angle of deviation is called angle of minimum deviation.
Q.15: Define totally reflecting prism.
Ans. The prism in which one angle is 90° and remaining two angles are of 45° each is called totally reflecting prism.
Q.16: For which purpose totally reflecting prism are used?
Ans. These are used in periscope, binoculars submarine, and in projectors.
Q.17: What are optical fibers? Write their uses
Ans Optical fibers are made of highly transparent fine strand of glass or plastic coated or cladded within another type of glass whose refractive index is less than inner tube.
Q.18: What is endoscope?
Ans. It is an instrument, which is used for viewing and photographing the internal structure of human body
Q.19: Define rainbow and write its kinds.
Ans. These are of spectral colour appear in the sky after a rain fall is called rainbow. This is called rainbow its kinds are primary rainbow and secondary rainbow
Q.20: Define primary and secondary rainbow.
Ans. The rainbow which has brightest in colours and is easily visible is called primary rainbow and rainbow appeared on the outer edge of the primary rainbow is called secondary rainbow
Q.21: What should be angle of incidence for total internal reflection?
Ans. The angle of incidence must be greater than critical angle in order to get total internal reflection.
Q22: Define spherical aberration?
Ans. The rays which pass through thick lens or lens of large aperture not focus at a point. so the image formed is not well defined and sharp is called spherical aberration.
Q 0.23: Define chromatic aberration?
Ans. The image illuminated by a white light trough a convex lens shows a colour and is not well defined this defect is called chromatic aberration.
Q.24: What are the types of defects in vision?
Ans. Many people cannot see objects clearly: have defects in their vision There are two main defects of vision
1. Long sightedness
2. Short sightedness
Q.25 To get a greater and clear image at what distance lens should be placed from the object?
Ans. The lens should be placed such that the object must be within focal length of lens, So as to get greater and clear image.
Q.26: What is long sightedness and how it is removed?
Ans. A person who can see distant objects clearly but cannot see near objects clearly is suffering from long sightedness. This defect can be removed by using convex lens of suitable focal length.
Q.27: Define prism.
Ans. A prism is a transparent object having two triangular and three rectangular sides. It is used to disperse light into seven colours
Q.28: Write the conditions of total internal reflection.
Ans. There are two conditions of total internal reflection.
(1) Light should pass from denser medium to rare medium
(2) The angle of incidence should greater than critical angle.
Q.29: What is refraction of light?
Ans. When light enters from one medium, to another medium it changes its direction and velocity.This phenomenon is called refraction of light.
Q.30: What is reflection of light?
Ans. The bouncing back of light after striking the shiny surface is called reflection of light.
Q.31: Which lens has greater power, cither of less focal length or of greater focal length?
Ans The lens with less focal length has greater power because P= 1/f Q.32: Which lens is used for long sightedness?
Ans. For short sightedness we use convex lens.
Q.33: To remove the defect of chromatic aberration which method is used?
Ans. To remove chromatic aberration we use combination of lens e a convex lens of crown glass and concave lens of flint glass.

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