Monday, 23 November 2020

Mnemonics of Biology for Fsc, MDCAT preparation

Mnemonics of Biology for Fsc, MDCAT preparation 

If you are looking for the biology neet mnemonics then you are on the right page because here we have shared the Mnemonics of Biology for Fsc, MDCAT preparation. 

Anterior Pituitary Hormones 

"FLAGTOP"

F: Follicle Stimulating Hormone

L: Luteinizing Hormone

A: ACTH

G: Growth Hormone

T: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

O: MSH - melanOcyte stimulating hormone

P: Prolactin 

FSH in males

directly stimulates spermatogenesis - sperm look like "FiSH." In females, FSH obviously stimulates ovarian follicles (which secrete estrogens, which stimulate endometrial proliferation). 

LH in males

stimulates androgen secretion so males become "Like Hairy Apes" (LH ? A). Androgens also stimulate spermatogenesis, so LH also indirectly stimulates spermatogenesis. In females, LH stimulates the corpus luteum (which secretes estrogens and progesterone, which stimulate the endometrium). 

Autonomic Nervous System 

Sympathetic: fight or flight

Parasympathetic: rest and digest 

Causes of Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

"Maggie May Does Not Smoke"

Mutations, Migration, genetic Drift, Non-random mating, Selection. 

Cell Cycle

"Go Sally Go! Make Children!"

G1, S, G2, M, C

Growth phase 1, DNA Synthesis (replication), Growth phase 2, Mitosis, Cytokinesis. 

Mitosis

"People Meet And Talk", or

"PMAT"

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase. 

Meiosis

"PMAT x2"

Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I,

Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II,

(Note: 4 haploid daughter cells instead of 2 diploid daughter cells) 

Chordate Features 

"Do Not Pinch People"

Dorsal, hollow nerve cord

Notochord

Pharyngeal slits

Postanal tail 

Developmental Stages 

"Must Be Good"

Morula, Blastula, Gastrula 

Fat-soluble Vitamins 

"ADEK"

Vitamins A,D,E, and K 

Gastrointestinal Hormones

(i.e. ones that originate from the GI tract) 

"Garlic Cloves Smell Exquisite"

Hormone Source Target Triggers Effects 

Gastrin Gastric mucosa Stomach Food in stomach, psychic factors Increased HCl secretion & gastric emptying 

Cholecystokinin (CCK) Duodenal mucosa Gallbladder & pancreas Amino acids, peptides, fatty acids


Mnemonics for Aerobic Respiration.

Glycolysis: Great Grandpa Frank Franklin

Did Go By  Picking Pumpkins( to ) Prepare Pies.

Great=Glucose 

GrandPa=Glucose-6-phosphate 

Frank=Fructose-6-phosphate 

Franklin =Fructose 1,6-bisphosphoglycerate 

DId=Dihydroxyacetone phosphate 

Go= Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 

BY=1,3 Bisphosphoglycerate (Step ...a)

Picking =3-Phosphoglycerate 

Pumpkins=2-Phosphoglycerate 

PrEPare=PEP(Phosphoenol pyruvate)

Pies=Pyruvic Acid.

(Interpret further if phosphate is added then use ATP as a source or removed then make ATP from ADP only exception is Pi(inorganic phosphate) is added directly in the formation of BY (Step ...a) and H2 also removed in the form of NADH2)

Krebs Cycle: C I Knows Some Formula Making Options.

C=Citric acid 

I=Iso-citrate

K= α-Ketogluturate 

S=Succinate 

F=Fumarate 

M=Malate 

O=Oxaloacetate

(Interpret further C to I isomerase is used bcz isomerisation took place, I to K as it is redox rxn so oxidation and reduction will take place so remove CO2 and also NADH(Reduction and Oxidation respectively),K to S (same oxidation-reduction but indirect ATP is synthesized further) , from S to F as fumarate is formed so FADH is also synthesized..memorise it from F F similarity) F to M we are Making as in mnemonic so for 'making" water is used( the way i memorised ) From M to O (NADH is obtained)


Mnemonics or short tricks to learn ANIMAL KINGDOM

Mnemonic: Sponges--- 

Pores All Your Sides.

Pore – Porifera

All – Spongilla

Your – Euspongia,

Sides – Sycon.

Examples: Spongilla, Euspongia, Sycon

PHYLUM COELENTERATA (CNIDARIA):

Examples: Physalia, Obelia, Meandrina, Adamsia, Aurelia, Gorgonia, Pennatula, Hydra.

Mnemonic: Physics Objective exams MeinAdam Aur George Ne Pen Hide kiya.

Physics – Physalia

Objective – Obelia

Mein – Meandrina

Adam – Adamsia

Aur – Aurelia

George – Gorgonia

Ne – Cnidaria

Pen – Pennatula

Hide – Hydra.

PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES:

Examples: Taenia, Planaria, Fasciola.

Mnemonic: Teeno ki Planning Fail hui.

Teeno – Taenia

Planning – Planaria

Fail – Fasciola

PHYLUM MOLLUSCA:

Examples: Pinctada, Sepia, Octopus, Dentalium, Aplysia, Chaetopleura, Pila, Loligo.

MNEMONIC: Phir se Octopus dekhenge, aap pehle chai pe lo.

Phir – Pinctada

Se – Sepia

Octopus

Dekhenge – Dentalium

Aap – Aplysia

Chai – Chaetopleura

Pe – Pila

Lo – Loligo

PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA:

Examples: Ophinuria, Antedon, Asterias, Echinus, Cucumaria.

MNEMONIC: office mein aunty asked for ek cucumber.

Office – Ophinuria

Aunty – Antedon

Asked – Asterias

Ek – Echinus

Cucumber – Cucumaria.

PHYLUM ASCHELMINTHES/ NEMATODA:

Examples: Ancylostoma, Wuchereria, Ascaris, Rhabditis.

MNEMONIC: Annie Bechaari AksarReh jati hai

Annie – Ancylostoma

Bechaari – Wuchereria

Aksar – Ascaris

Reh – Rhabditis.

PHYLUM ANNELIDA:

Examples: Hirudinaria, Pheretima, Nereis.

MNEMONIC: HERO PHERE KE TIME NAHITHA.

Hero – Hirudinaria

Phere ke time – Pheretima

Nahi – Nereis.

PHYLUM ARTHROPODA:

Examples: Locusta, Limulus, Bombax, Apies, Scorpion, Butterfly, Palaemon, Laccifer, Anopheles, Culex, Aedes.

MNEMONIC: LOLITA BOMBAY AAKAR STORE SE BUTTER PEHLE MAT LENA.

LoLita – Locusta & Limulus

Bombay – Bombax

Aakar – Apies

Store – Scorpion

Butter – Butterfly

Pehle – Palaemon

Mat – Mosquitoes (Anopheles, Culex, Aedes)

Lena – Laccifer.


*Hormones mnemonics*

Anterior Pituitary Hormones

"FLAGTOP"

F: Follicle Stimulating Hormone

L: Luteinizing Hormone

A: ACTH

G: Growth Hormone

T: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

O: MSH - melanOcyte stimulating hormone

P: Prolactin

FSH in males

directly stimulates spermatogenesis - sperm look like "FiSH." In females, FSH obviously stimulates ovarian follicles (which secrete estrogens, which stimulate endometrial proliferation).

LH in males

stimulates androgen secretion so males become "Like Hairy Apes" (LH ? A). Androgens also stimulate spermatogenesis, so LH also indirectly stimulates spermatogenesis. In females, LH stimulates the corpus luteum (which secretes estrogens and progesterone, which stimulate the endometrium).

Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic: fight or flight

Parasympathetic: rest and digest

Causes of Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

"Maggie May Does Not Smoke"

Mutations, Migration, genetic Drift, Non-random mating, Selection.

Cell Cycle

"Go Sally Go! Make Children!"

G1, S, G2, M, C

Growth phase 1, DNA Synthesis (replication), Growth phase 2, Mitosis, Cytokinesis.

Mitosis

"People Meet And Talk", or

"PMAT"

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.

Meiosis

"PMAT x2"

Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I,

Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II,

(Note: 4 haploid daughter cells instead of 2 diploid daughter cells)

Chordate Features

"Do Not Pinch People"

Dorsal, hollow nerve cord

Notochord

Pharyngeal slits

Postanal tail

Developmental Stages

"Must Be Good"

Morula, Blastula, Gastrula

Fat-soluble Vitamins

"ADEK"

Vitamins A,D,E, and K

Gastrointestinal Hormones

(i.e. ones that originate from the GI tract)

"Garlic Cloves Smell Exquisite"

Hormone Source Target Triggers Effects

Gastrin Gastric mucosa Stomach Food in stomach, psychic factors Increased HCl secretion & gastric emptying

Cholecystokinin (CCK) Duodenal mucosa Gallbladder & pancreas Amino acids, peptides, fatty acids in duodenum Contraction of gallbladder & secretion of pancreatic juice

Secretin Gastric mucosa Pancreas Acid in duodenum Increased bicarbonate secretion

Enterogastrone (gastric inhibitory peptide) Duodenal mucosa Stomach Fat digestion products in duodenum Decreases gastric emptying

Hormones that Increase Blood Glucose

"STENGG"

Somatotropin (growth hormone)

Thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine)

Epinephrine

Norepinephrine

Glucagon

Glucocorticosteroids

Immunoglobulins

"MADGE"

IgM, IgA, IgD, IgG, IgE

Kingdoms

"My Poor Friend Picks Apples"

Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plants, Animals

Male Reproductive Tract (path of sperm)

"SEVEN UP"

Seminiferous tubules

Epididymis

Vas deferens

Ejaculatory duct

(Nothing)

Urethra

Penis

Menstrual Cycle

"FOL(d) M(a)PS"

Ovarian cycle: Follicular phase, Ovulatory phase, Luteal phase

Menstrual cycle: Menstrual flow, Proliferative phase, Secretory phase

The ovarian cycle controls the menstrual cycle. The cycles begin (day 0) when menstrual flow starts. At day 14, the luteal and secretory phases begin and last until day 28, after which the cycles begin again.

Molecular Genetics

"EXons EXpressed, INtrons IN the trash"

DNA expression into mature mRNA

"CUT the PY"

Cytosine, Uracil, and Thiamine are PYrimidines (one-ring structures)

"GAPur"

Guanine and Adenine are PURines (two-ring structures)

"All Tigers Can Growl"

Adenine binds to Thymine; Cytosine bonds to Guanine

Or, "Pure Silver Taxi"

Purines, A and G, bond to pyrimidines, T and C, respectively

Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve

Think of an exercising muscle for a rightward shift:

Exercising muscle is:

hot,

acidic (lactic acid),

hypercarbic,

and has increased 2,3-DPG.

Exercising muscle benefits from increased oxygen unloading from red blood cells.

Proteases in the Duodenum

"Eat Tender Chicken Chunks Elegantly"

Enterokinase

Trypsin

Chymotrypsin

Carboxypeptidase

Elastase

Note: The first enzyme is produced by intestinal mucosal cells, while the others are produced in inactive precursor forms by the pancreas.

Enterokinase converts trypsinogen into trypsin

Trypsin converts other trypsinogen molecules into trypsin

Trypsin converts chymotrypsinogen into chymotrypsin

Trypsin converts procarboxypeptidase into carboxypeptidase

Trypsin converts proelastase into elastase

Scientific Method

Inductive Reasoning

"IS GOHH"

Induction: Specific ? General. Or, Observation ? Hypothesis ? Hypothesis-testing.

The inductive process proceeds from specific observations to a general hypothesis.

Deductive Reasoning

"D(o)GS"

Deduction: General ? Specific

The deductive process proceeds from a general hypothesis to predictions about specific observations.

Sedimentation

Rate of SeDimentation is proportional to Size and Density

More precisely,

terminal velocity of particle ? radius2 x (density - density of medium)

Sizes

"Bowel Movement" or "BM"

A Bacterium is about 1 Micron (1 mm)

A eukaryotic cell is about 10 times larger (10 mm)

A virus is about 100 times smaller (0.01 mm)

Note: these are very, very rough guides. The ranges of sizes are wide.

Striated Muscle

"ZIAH"

Z-line, I-band, A-band, H-zone

Taxonomy

"King Phillip Came Over From Great Spain"

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Vertebrate Features

"CEVASACK"

Cephalization

Endoskeleton

Vertebrae

Axial skeleton

Skull

Appendicular skeleton

Closed circulatory system

Kidneys

White Blood Cells

(In order of decreasing numbers.)

"Nobody Likes My Educational Background"

N Neutrophils

L Lymphocytes

M Monocytes

E Eosinophils

B Basophils

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