Wednesday, 3 July 2019

2nd Year English Chapter 2 Notes Using Scientific Method - 12th class

2nd Year English Chapter 2 Notes Using Scientific Method - 12th class
Looking for the 12th class English notes of chapter 2? Here we have published the 2nd Year English Chapter 2 Notes Using Scientific Method - 12th class.

Exercise of Textbook Questions

Q.1: How has the scientific method helped us in our fight against disease. 2009 2014
Ans: In the past, the people died of fatal diseases like yellow fever, typhus, cholera typhoid fever, measles and whooping cough. The scientific method has helped us in our fight against disease with the invention of modern medicine and epidemic control.

Q.2: Write a note on the better sanitary conditions available in our cities today
and compare them with what they were like a hundred years ago. (2010)
Ans: Sanitary conditions in our larger cities, one hundred years ago, were very poor Streets were narrow, unpaved, and poorly drained. Garbage was thrown in the streets Outdoor toilets were common But today our city streets are paved, well drained and well cleaned. Sewage from all sections of city is carried through scaled pipes. Clean water is supplied to the
inhabitants.

Q.3: What are the sanitary conditions like in our villages today and how would
you improve them?
Ans: In our villages, sanitary conditions are not good. Streets are not paved and well drained. System of sewerage is not proper Outdoor toilets are common
We can improve them by proper planning and by making the people conscious
places about their health Streets must be paved. Garbage must be thrown at specific.

Q.4: How has the scientific method helped us in the production and preservation
of foods? (2011)
Ans: It has been made possible to increase the production of food by using various fertilizers and pesticides manufactured by the scientific method. Moreover, the scientific method has also enabled us to find new ways of dehydration and quick freeze methods to increase the quality of the preservation of foods

Q.5: We are now generally less fearful than our ancestors. What were our ancestors afraid of?
Ans: We are now generally less fearful than our ancestors because they believed in the signs of good or bad luck. They were afraid of black cats, broken mirrors and the no. 13. They wore different kinds of charms to avoid bad luck.

0.6: How has the scientific method enabled us to get over the old fears?
Ans: Superstitious beliefs are got over by the use of the scientific method which has shown that there is no sound basis for them. It has taught us that there is always a good natural reason for everything that happens.

Q.7: What part did astrology play in the lives of men and women in the past? Give examples
Ans: Astrology and fortune-telling affected the lives of people greatly in the past
People attributed both good and bad influences to stars. They consulted sorcerers
and astrologists before doing anything.

Q.8: Describe some of the superstitions still current in our country. How do they
affect the lives of those who believe in them?
Ans: There are a lot of superstitions in our country. People believe in charms, black cats, crow's cackles and many other things. Business of fortune-telling is thriving in all the areas of Pakistan. Some people plan their activities in the light of the signs of good and bad luck.

Extensive Questions

Q.1: What kind of problems have we solved by using the scientific method?/In
what fields according to Darrel Barnard and Lon Edward has the scientific
method helped us? (2012)
Ans: By using the scientific method, we have solved the problems dealing with the maintenance of health, the production and preservation of foods, the construction of our homes and communication and transportation.

Q.2: What do the unsanitary conditions cause? (2014)
Ans: The unsanitary conditions cause the diseases like typhoid fever, cholera and
dysentery One should be mindful of one's cleanliness to avoid such diseases.

Q.3: How has the scientific method changed the behaviour of modern man?
Ans: The scientific method has changed the behaviour of modern man because he has now become less fearful and more critical than his forefathers This has become possible because he has realized that there is a strong scientific reason for everything that happens.

Q.4: Name the diseases which one could have had by reaching the age of twelve?
Ans: One could have had the diseases like measles, whooping cough, scarlet fever and diphtheria by reaching the age of twelve.

Q.5: Which were the diseases that, once started, spread through a community?
Ans: Yellow fever, malaria, typhus, cholera, typhoid fever and even influenza were the diseases which, once started, spread through a community

Q.6: Who was considered fortunate?
Ans: Life was very uncertain in the past. A person who lived to be more than thirty years of age was considered fortunate.

Q.7 What happened to most of the babies in the past? (2013)
Ans: Most of the babies died in their early age because of many fatal diseases that attacked them. Seven out of eight babies died before reaching their first birthday.

Q.8: Why do the children not get diseases today as compared to the past?
Ans: The children do not get diseases today because they are born in hospitals where there is little likelihood of their getting a disease. They are protected against small-pox, diphtheria, typhoid, fever etc. by vaccination.

Q.9 How has science increased the average lifespan of man? (2013)
Ans. Science has increased the average life span of man with the invention of latest medicine and epidemic control Every disease is curable now due to modern
medicine. Fatal diseases can be diagnosed easily. A person who lived to be more
than thirty years of age was considered fortunate in past but today a person can
expect to live more than seventy years.

Q.10: Write a note on better sanitary conditions available in our cities today.(2011)
Ans: The sanitary conditions in our cities have been improved greatly today as
compared to the past. There is a proper system of sanitation and cleanliness. The
streets are paved, well-drained and cleaned regularly by the sanitation department of city governments It is considered unlawful to throw garbage in the streets.

Q.11: How have the governments managed to clean the cities these days?
Ans: Today, most city governments have departments of sanitation which keep the cities clean and thereby prevent the spread of certain diseases.

Q.12: What improvement has science brought in the water supply?
Ans. Water was brought in buckets from wells a century ago. Towns and cities today have water systems that usually provide water through sealed pipes. This water is  purified in filter plants and treated with chemicals.

Q.13: How is water supplied to Los Angeles? (2010)
Ans: Water is supplied to Los Angeles through a pipeline or an aqueduct from the Colorado River which is 544 kilometers away.

Q.14: How did the ancient people produce most of their foods?
Ans: The ancient people produced most of their foods on their own farms or in their own gardens. Therefore, fresh vegetables and fruit could be obtained only during the growing season.

0.15: How was food preserved in the past? (2007)
Ans. Home grown vegetables and fruit were preserved by canning, pickling or drying. Meats were preserved by salting. drying or freezing in cold weather.

Q.16: How has the scientific method helped us in the preservation of foods? (2011).
Ans. The scientific method has helped us in the preservation of food with the invention of modern methods like dehydration and quick-freeze. We can obtain fresh fruit meats and vegetables throughout the year Modern methods of selecting dehydrating, grading and processing foods save them from poisoning.

Q.17: What is method of dehydration for preserving of food? (2011)
Ans: Food is preserved by the modern methods of dehydration today. Dehydration means removal of moisture.The moisture of eatables is extracted with the help of latest equipment. The food is then sterilized and packed for general use.

Q.18: What do superstitious people believe in?
Ans: Superstitious people believe in the signs of good or bad luck and they think that their lives are governed by spirits.

Q.19: Discuss how science has made man open minded?
Ans: Science has made people open-minded because they are not willing to accept the outcome of any discovery as final. People have become more logical and less fearful in their thinking.

Q.20: Why do people not accept conclusions as final?
Ans: People do not accept conclusions as final they have to change their old ideas as a result of new discoveries. They are not ready to accept things which were once considered true without any scientific basis.

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