Sunday 7 July 2019

9th Biology Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology Notes

9th Biology Chapter Introduction to Biology Notes

9th Biology Chapter 1 Introduction to Biology Notes

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01. What is Science?
 Ans. Science is the study in which observations are made, experiments are done and logical conclusions are drawn in order to understand the principles of nature.
 Q2. Why the scientific knowledge was classified into different branches?
 Ans. In ancient times, all the scientific informations were included under one head i.e Science'. With the passage of time scientific informations increased many folds and this enormous scientific knowledge was then classified into different branches like, biology physics,chemistry, mathematics etc.
 03. What Dr. Abdul Salam told about scientific knowledge?
 Ans. According to Dr. Abdul Salam, scientific knowledge is the common heritage of mankind
 04. What is biology? Describe major divisions of biology.
 Ans. Biology
 The scientific study of life is called biology.
 Explanation of word Biology"
 Explanation of word "Biology"
 The word "biology" has been derived from two Greek words: (a) "Bios" meaning 'life
 (b) "Logos" meaning thought or reasoning.
 What we study in biology?
 The study of biology helps us in studying the structures, functions and related aspects of living organisms. It also provides information and remedies to human problems regarding health, food, environment etc.
 Major Divisions of Biology
 Biology can be divided into three major divisions: 
(i) Zoology
 This division of biology deals with the study of animals.
 (ii) Botany
 This division of biology deals with the study of plants.
 (iii) Microbiology
 This division of biology deals with the study of microorganisms. c.g. viruses bacteria, etc.
 Q5. Define different branches of biology 
Ans. In order to study all the aspects of life, major divisions of biology are further divided into different branches as defined below
 (i) Morphology
 This branch deals with the study of form and structure of living organisms.
 (ii) Anatomy:
 The study of internal structures is called anatomy (iii) Histology
 The microscopic study of tissues is called histology.
 iv) Cell biology
 The study of structures and functions of cells and cell organelles is called cell biology. This branch also deals with the study of cell division.
 (v) Physiology
 This branch deals with the study of the functions of different parts of living organisms.
 (vi) Embryology
 It is the study of the development of an embryo to a new individual.
 (vii) Taxonomy
 It is the study of the naming and classification of organisms into groups and subgroups.
 (viii) Genetics
 The study of genes and their role in inheritance is called genetics Inheritance means the transmission of characters from one generation to the other.
 (ix) Palaeontology
 It is the study of fossils, which are the remains of extinct organisms.
 (x) Environmental Biology
 It deals with the study of the interactions between the organisms and their environment.
 (xi) Biotechnology
 It deals with the practical application of living organisms to make substances for the welfare of mankind
 (xii) Socio-Biology
 This branch deals with the study of social behaviour of animals that make societies
 (xiii) Parasitology
 This branch deals with the study of parasites.
 Q8 Describe the relationship of biology to other sciences.
 Ans. Introduction
 The interrelationship among different branches of science cannot be denied. Biological informations relate to the other branches of science as well. For example, when studying the process of movement in animals, the biologists have to refer to the laws of motion in Physics. This forms the basis of interdisciplinary sciences
 (1) Bio-physics
 It deals with the study of the principles of physics, which are applicable to the biological.
 Example Similarity between the working principles of lever in Physics and limbs of animals in Biology
 (ii Bio-chemistry
 It deals with the study of the Chemistry of different chemical compounds and processes occurring in living organisms.
Example The study of basic metabolism of photosynthesis and respiration involves the knowledge of Chemistry

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