Sunday, 7 July 2019

10th Biology Chapter 9 Pharmacology Notes

10th Biology Chapter 9 Pharmacology Notes

10th Biology Chapter 9 Pharmacology Notes

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Q. No.1 What is pharmacology?
 PHARMACOLOGY
 The study of drug composition, properties, medical applications sources of drugs is called pharmacology
 Q. No. 2 What do you know about clinical pharmacology?
 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
 Clinical pharmacology was present in Middle Ages. Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, mainly plant extracts. Pharmacology developed century as a biomedical science.
 Q.No. 3 What is a drug?
 DRUG
 Any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism, alters normal body functions is known as a drug.
 Q. No. 4 What is a pharmaceutical drug?
 PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG
 Any chemical substance that is used in the diagnosis, cure, treatment or prevention of a disease is called a pharmaceutical or medicinal drug 
Q. No. 5 What is an addictive drug?
 ADDICTIVE DRUG
 The drugs that make person dependent on them or addicted are called addictive drugs.
 Effect
 By using addictive drug, the person's body becomes familiar to it and the user can not function without it
 Q. No. 6 What are prescription drugs?
 PRESCRIPTION DRUGSThe drugs that are sold only on physician prescription are called prescription drugs.
 Examples:
 These include
 Barbiturates
 Tranquilizers
 Antibiotics
 Q. No.7 What are non-prescription drugs?
 NON-PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
 The drugs that can be sold over the counter with out physicians' prescription because these are considered safe enough are called non-prescription drugs.
 Examples:
 These include
 Aspirin
 Some cough medicines
 Q. No. 8 What do know about Materia Medica?
 MATERIA MEDICA
 Until 1890, the subject of pharmacology was known as Materia Medica
Q. No. 9 How terramycin was developed?
 DEVELOPMENT OF TERRAMYCIN
 Rescarchers of a pharmaceutical company spent two years testing soil from all parts of the world to find new antibiotics. The project resulted in the development of one antibiotic, Terramycin, which is used to treat many infections 
Q. No. 10 What is the contribution of Sir Alexander Fleming?
 CONTRIBUTION OF SIR ALEXANDER FLEMING Period:
 1881- 1955
 Place:
 He was a Scottish Biologist.
 Contribution:
 He discovered the antibiotic penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum.
 Nobel Prize:
 He was awarded Noble Prize in 1945.
 Q. No. 11 What is the contribution of Joseph Lister?
 CONTRIBUTION OF JOSEPH LISTER
 Period:
 1827-1912
Place:
 He was an English Surgeon.
 Contribution:
 He promoted the idea of sterile surgery for the first time. He introduced carbolic acid to sterilize surgical instruments and to clean wounds
 Q.No. 12 Why heroin is prescribed?
 HEROIN PRESCRIPTION
 In many western countries, heroin is prescribed as a strong analgesic under the name diamorphine. Its use includes treatment for acute pain, such as: Severe physical trauma
 Myocardial infarction
 Post-surgical pain
 Q.No. 13 What are hallucinations?
 HALLUCINATIONS
 The perceptions that have no basis in reality, but that appear entirely realistic are called hallucinations.
 O No. 14 What is the difference between broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum antibiotics?
BROAD-SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS 
The antibiotics that can be used to treat a wide range of infections are known as broad spectrum antibiotics.
 NARROW-SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTICS
 The antibiotics that are only effective against a few types of bacteria are known as narrow spectrum antibiotics.
 Q. No. 15 What is the most common method of administering vaccine?
 MOST COMMON METHOD OF ADMINISTERING VACCINE The most common method of administering vaccines is by injection, but some vaccines are given by mouth or nasal spray
 Q.No. 16 When children are required to be vaccinated?
 VACCINATION TO CHILDREN
 The children are required to be vaccinated before attending school.
 Q.No. 17 What are the outcomes of vaccination to children?
 OUTCOMES OF VACCINATION TO CHILDREN The vaccination of children has resulted in marked decrease of many once common diseases including:
 Whooping cough
 Polio
 Smallpox
 Q. No. 18 Why booster shots of vaccines are required?
 REQUIREMENT OF BOOSTER SHOTS OF VACCINES Some nes do not provide life time immunity, For example, tetanus vaccines are only effective for a limited period of time. In such cases. booster shots are necessary to maintain continuous protection.
 Q. No. 19 What is the side effect of spired drugs
SIDE EFFECT OF EXPIRED DRUGS The expired drugs can cause damage to kidneys 
Q. No. 20 On what basis the drugs are classified?
 BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS
 The drugs are classified on the basis of: Chemical properties
 Modes of action
 Sharing settings

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