Sunday, 7 July 2019

10th Biology Chapter 8 Biotechnology Notes

10th Biology Chapter 8 Biotechnology Notes

10th Biology Chapter 8 Biotechnology Notes

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Q. No. 1 Till how long the humans are using biotechnology?
 USE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
 Humans have been making use of biotechnology since they discovered farming. This use extended from the planting of seeds to the control of plant growth and crop production Examples:
 Animal breeding is also a form of biotechnology Cross-pollination of plants and cross-breeding of animals were major techniques in biotechnology
 Q. No. 2 Why Cross-pollination and cross-breeding techniques were used?
 USAGE OF TECHNIQUES
 Cross-pollination of plants and eross-breeding of animals were major techniques biotechnology used to:
 Enhance product quality
 Meet specific requirements
 Q. No. 3 What is old biotechnology?
 OLD BIOTECHNOLOGY
 Although the term biotechnology is new, the discipline itself is very old. Fermentation and other such processes, which are based on the natural capabilities of organisms, are commonly considered as old biotechnology.
 Q. No. 4 Define biotechnology.
 BIOTECHNOLOGYThe use of living organisms in processes for the manufacture of useful products or for services is called biotechnology
 Q. No. 5 When human being started use of microorganisms?
 USE OF MICROORGANISMS
 Human began using microorganisms as early as 4000 BC for making: • Wine
 • Vinegar
 • Cheese
 • Yogurt
 • Some of these processes have become a part of every home that we may even hesitate to • refer them as biotechnology
Q. No. 6 What do you know about Dolly Sheep?
 DOLLY SHEEP
 In Scotland, in 1997, an embryologist lan Wilmut produced a sheep (Dolly) from the body cell of an adult sheep.
 Q. No. 7 What is the difference between cellular respiration and fermentation?
 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CELLULAR RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION
Q. No. 8 What are the fears related to biotechnology?
 FEARS RELATED TO BIOTECHNOLOGY
 Fears are also being expressed about the advances in biotechnology in terms of release of harmful organisms developed through recombinant DNA technology Q. No. 9 What is the role of Louis Pasteur in fermentation?
 ROLE OF LOUIS PASTEUR IN FERMENTATION
 1857 Pasteur convinced the scientific community that all fermentations are the results of microbial activity. He showed that fermentation is always accompanied by the development of microorganisms. There are many kinds or fermentation and each kind is a characteristic of particular microbial group
 Q. No. 10 How are the fermentations classified?CLASSIFICATION OF KERMENTATIONS Fermentations are classified in terms of the products formed 
Q. No. 11 What are the steps of carbohydrate fermentation?
 STEPS OF CARBOHYDRATE FERMENTATION
 The initial steps of carbohydrate fermentation are identical to those of respiration. The process begins with glycolysis, in which the glucose, molecule is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Different microorganisms proceed the further reactions in different ways. It results in the formation of various products from pyruvic acid.
 Q. No. 12 Before genetic engineering, how many sheep brains were required to produce 5 mg of human growth hormone?
 REQUIREMENT OF SHEEP BRAINS
 Before genetic engineering. 500,000 sheep brains were required to produce 5 mg of human growth hormone
 Q. No. 13 Why single cell proteins are called so?
 NAMING OF SINGLE CELL PROTEIN
 The single cell proteins are called so because the micro SISTS used as producers are unicellular or filamentous individuals
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