Sunday, 7 July 2019

10th Biology Chapter 3 Coordination and Control Notes

10th Biology Chapter 3 Coordination and Control Notes

10th Biology Chapter 3 Coordination and Control Notes

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Q. No. 9 How regeneration of broken nerve cells take place?
 REGENERATION OF BROKEN NERVE CELLS
 The regeneration of broken nerve cells takes place by a protein called nerve-growth-factor 
Q. No. 10 How degenerating brain cells are repaired?
 REPAIRING DEGENERATED BRAIN CELLS
 The degenerating brain cells could be repaired by using embryonic stem cells.
 Q. No. 11 Write the types of neurons on the basis of their function.
 TYPES OF NEURONS
 On the basis of their functions, neurons are of three types 1. Sensory Neurons:
 Sensory neurons conduct sensory information (nerve impulse) from receptors towards the CNS. Sensory neurons have one dendrite and one axon.
 2. Interneurons:
 Interneurons form brain and spinal cord. They receive information, interpret them and stimulate motor neurons. They have many dendrites and axons 3. Motor Neurons:
 Motor Neurons carry information from interneurons to muscle or glands (effectors They have many dendrites but only one axon
 Q. No. 12 Define nerve.
 NERVE
 The union of several axons that are enveloped by a covering made of lipid form a nerve 
Q. No. 13 Write types of nerves based on the property of axons
TYPES OF NERVES
 Based on the property of axons, the nerves are classified into three types: Sensory Nerves:
 Sensory nerves contain the axons of sensory neurons only Motor Nerves:
 Motor nerves contain the axons of motor neurons only 3. Mixed Nerves:
 Mixed nerves contain the axons of both sensory and motor neurons.
 Q. No. 14 What is a ganglion?
 GANGLION
 In certain parts of the body, the cell bodies of many neurons form a group enveloped by a membrane. This is called ganglion.
 Q. No. 15 What is hippocampus?
 HIPPOCAMPUS
 Location:
 Hippocampus is a structure that is deep in the cerebrum.
 Function
 It functions for the formation of new memories Damaged Hippocampus:
 People with a damages hippocampus can not remember things that occurred after the damage but can remember things that occurred before damageQ.No. 16 What is brain stem?
 BRAIN STEM
 The following three parts of brain collectively referred as brain stem because these connect the rest of the brain to spinal cord Medulla oblongata
 ens
 Midbrai
 Q.No 17 What is the length of spinal cord?
 LENGTH OF SPINAL CORD
 Spinal cord is roughly 40 cm long and about as wide as your thumb for most of its length.
 QNo. 18 What is the effect of too much light and too little light on retina?
 EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON RETINA
 Q.No. 19 How many rods and cones are present in human eye?
 Number of Rods:
 125 Lakhs
 Number of Cones:
 7 Lakhs
 QNo. 20 Why the eyes of cats and dogs shine at night?SHINING OF EYES The eyes of cats ana dogs shine at night because of the presence of tapetum behind the eyes which is a layer capable of reflecting light 
Q.No. 21 Why colour vision is essential for a pilot?
 NECESSITY OF COLOUR VISION
 For a pilot, colour vision is essential so that he/she can recognize Aircraft position lights
 Light gun signals
 Airport beacon
 Approach slope indicators
 Chart symbols
 A pilot must have the ability to perceive these colours necessary for the safe performance of his her duties
 Q.No. 22 Which one is the most influential book written in the history of physics?
 MOST INFLUENTIAL BOOK
 Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics" has been ranked alongside a book of Isaac Newton It is one of the most influential books written in the history of physics.
 Q.No. 23 Why owl is not able to see during day time?
 VISION OF OWL IN DAY TIME
 Owl is not able to see during day time. The reason for this is the deficiency of cones which receive and sense the bright light But the presence of more rods gives it greater power of vision during night All animals that search for during night have this characteristic 
Q. No. 24 Which is the smallest bone of the human body?
 SMALLEST BONE OF HUMAN BODY
 Stapes is the smallest bone of human body.
Q.No. 25 What is thunderstorm and lightning?
 THUNDERSTORM AND LIGHTNING
 A thunderstorm is characterized by the presence of lightning and a thunder. The lightning is caused by an electrical charge due to the movement of water droplets or crystals carried by the wind. The sudden increase in pressure and temperature from lightning produces rapid expansion of the air. This expansion of air produces a sound of thunder. The flash of lightning is followed after some seconds by a roar of thunder. This time difference is due to the fact that sound travels slower than light
 Q. No.26 Name some activities of the body which are required to be regulated.
 ACTIVITIES REQUIRE REGULATION
 Following are the some of the activities of the body which are required to be regulated: Growth
 Reproduction
 Maintenance of glucose concentration in blood Reabsorption of water in kidneys
 Q No.27 Define Hormone
 HORMONE
 ASpecifie chemical messenger molecule synthesized and secreted by endocrine gland is called a hormone
 Q. NO. 28 What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands:
Q.No. 29 What are the different roles of hormones?
 ROLES OF HORMONES
 The stepwise process of metamorphosis in many animals is controlled by hormones.
 Life activities such as cell division in invertebrates are also regulated by hormones.
 Hormones also control activities like migration in birds Hormones have been identified even in unicellular organisms.
Q. No. 38 How knowledge of nervous system has helped man to treat nervous disorders?
 TREATMENT OF NERVOUS DISORDERS
 The knowledge of the composition and functioning of nervous system has helped man in the diagnosis and treatment of nervous disorders including paralysis and epilepsy. Man has discovered the areas of brain that receive information from different sense organs and the areas that send messages to different effectors. Such knowledge helps a lot in identifying the malfunctioning areas of brain.
 Q. No. 39 Why objects should never be placed in a patient's mouth during a seizure attack?
 SEIZURE ATTACK
 During a seizure attack, objects should never be placed in a patient's mouth as it can result in serious injury. It is possible that the patient will bite his/her own tongue 
Q.No. 40 What is the contribution of Ali Ibn Isa?
 CONTRIBUTION OF ALI IBN ISA
 Ali Ibn isa was a famous Arab scientist
 Period 950-1012
 Contribution:
 He wrote three books on ophthalmology (study of the disease and surgery of eyes), He described 130 eye diseases and prescribed 143 drugs to treat these diseases.
Q.No. 41 What is the contribution of Ibn al-Haytham?
 CONTRIBUTION OF IBN AL-HAYTHAM
 Ibn al-Haytham was an Arab scientist.
 Period: 965-1039
 Contributions:
 He made significant contributions to the principles of eye and vision. He is regarded as the father of optics (study of the behavior of light). His Book of Optics" correctly explained and proved the modern theory of vision. He discussed the topics of medicine and eye surgery in his book He made several improvements to eye surgery and accurately described the following: The process of sight
 The structure of eye
 Image formation in eye
 Visual system
 The principles of pinhole camera
 Q. No.42 What is deafness?
 DEAFNESS
 Deafness is a state in which hearing is not possible.
 Cause
 The defect of ear drum, cochlea. middle ear ossicles, or auditory nerve may cause deafness. Infection in Eustachian tube may spread to middle ear too. Ear drum may be damaged by an infection in auditory canal.
 Effect on Hearing:
 Excessive noise, strong blows on cheek, pointed objects entering auditory canal and attack from insects, may also affect hearing 
QNo. 43 How do cars maintain the balance of body?
 MAINTENANCE OF BALANCE OF BODY
 Semicircular canals and vestibule help to maintain the balance of body. Semicircular canals contain sensory nerves which can detect any movement of head Vestibule can detect any changes in the posture of body The neurons coming from these two receptors reach cerebellum through the auditory nerve.

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