Tuesday, 14 February 2017

Classification of Governments

Classification of Governments
Governments differ in respect of their nature, organization, structure and functions. These basic principles can be regarded as determinants. There are three major aspects on which the governments are classified.

    1: Number of Rulers

    From the point of view of the number of rulers, the forms of governments are: Monarchy, Aristocracy, Dictatorship and Democracy.

    Monarchy

    The form of government in which the head of the state designated on the basis of hereditary succession. This type of form can be called as Monarchy.

    Aristocracy

    The assumption and exercise of political authority by few elite persons due to their distinctive position in the society, is termed as Aristocracy.

    Dictatorship

    If a person gets hold of political power as usurper, generally through military coup, and assume absolute political authority, the government  can be called Dictatorship

    Democracy

    In democratic form of government people have political participation either directly or through their elected representatives. 

    2: Separation of Powers

    From the point of view of separation of powers the number of governments are: Parliamentary and Presidential.

    Parliamentary Form of Government

    If executive is the part of the legislature and also accountable to it, the system will be parliamentary.

    Presidential Form of Government

    In this form of government, the head of the executive is also the head of the state who is elected by the people and wields executive authority.

    3: Division of Powers

    From the point of view of division of Powers, the forms of governments are: Federal and Unitary systems.

    Federal Form of Government

    In this form of government, the power of government is divided in between the national government and the governments of the region through a superior constitution.

    Unitary Form of Government

    In Unitary form of government, no division of power envisaged by the constitution. The paramount position of the central government is recognised while there may be local governments who may derive their powers from the central government viz., they enjoy the delegated authority only. The central government can increase, decrease or withdraw the power of the local units.

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