Wednesday, 15 February 2017

13 Major Branches of Sociology

13 Major Branches of Sociology
Man’s all such behaviors which are termed as ‘social’ lie in the field of sociology. Social behaviors open vistas with variety of interest in various aspects of life. Various human interests, corresponding various aspects of life, need a thorough study for each of them. Man’s life is many-sided. To study one side thoroughly, specialization of interest is needed in that very side. The subject Covers a large number of areas in its study. The specialized areas of inquiry include problems, phases of social life and institutional structure. Social problems such as poverty, crime and delinquency, vice, sectarianism, physical and mental diseases are in the areas of sociological study. Social institutions as family, school, college, mosque and market are the fields of special interest. Mob behavior, the crowds strikes and unrest among the people of community, are the occasions of interesting investigation to Sociologist. Sociology is divided into several fields of inquiry as follows:


    1. Sociological Theory

    It analyses the principles and concepts as generalization of the science. “Self-critical” approach of science is practically applied and in view of the latest investigations the previously existing knowledge is verified It is a tug-of-war between theory and fact While fact being an undeniable existence of a reality Scientific methods used in social research are the tools of collecting new facts while theory is Previously existing knowledge. “Circulation of Elite” between classes in a Society, “residues” and “derivatives” are the theories of Pareto Durkheim’s theories of “Collective representation” and “suicide” attain an important position in sociological knowledge. Sumner’s concepts of folkways and ‘mores’ are valuable inventions added to the store . of sociological knowledge. “Differential association”, a theory of crime by Sutherland, is gaining importance not in Criminology but in Sociology also. “Frustration-aggression”, a theory in psychology by Dollard is bring applied in sociological researches. The hypothesis of “cultural lag” by Ogburn is maturing into theory by the recent verification. “Evolution of the species” and “survival of the fittest” are the hypotheses of Charles Darwin, under hot discussion today in sociology. Similarly, a large number of Sociological theories exist today as lasting knowledge.

    2. Historical Sociology

    Primitive and pre-literate societies of the recent past are the subject-matter of study. With the information received, an answer for origin and explanation to our present ways of life is discovered. Remote cultures of ancient societies have been studied by anthropologists, which are a source of huge information for comparative study of cultures past and present. The stages crossed by modern cultures. cannot be revived by a switch. The only way left to conceive about past stages of modern cultures is to study the remote cultures, existing today in primitive societies. We study ‘culture change’ by this method..

    3. Sociology of Family

    How did the oldest institution originate, and how did it evolve? What are the universal functions of this institution? What forms it has been adopting in different times? What are the recent trends of a modern family? And what are the major problems faced today to the integrity of the institution? These and such others are the questions for inquiry in this part of sociology.

    4. sociology of Community

    The organization and problems in both rural and urban types of communities are different and analyzed in this branch. Rural life differs from urban in important characteristics. On the criteria of differentiation the field is divided into rural and urban sociology. Rural sociology studies rural social structure, rural problems, its causes and consequences and socio-cultural changes taking place in
    rural areas. On the other hand, urban sociology, is more interested in urban social structure, urban problems, its causes and consequences and socio-cultural changes taking place in urban parts of society.

    5. Sociology of Religion

    We study the origin and development of the Institution of mosque. The institution performs certain functions for the integration of social groups. These functions and problems of the institution are of equal importance in sociology. Sociology of Quran, Hadith and Fiqah analyses concepts, principles
    and generalizations in Sociology of Islam.

    6. Educational Sociology

    The aims and objects of educational institutions are studied in the field. The activities of tFe institutions and problems arisen and relationship with other institutions are also important topics of
    inquiry. The school is related with community, both affecting each other in various ways.

    7. Political Sociology

    The origin, development, functions and problems of the government and various social implications in political movements are the areas of study in this field. Distribution of power and authority, state and citizen relationship and good governance are the topics of political sociology.

    8. Sociology of Law

    It studies the formal social control of society. Flow laws regulate and systematize group life? Conformity and non-conformity to laws and the sociological factors responsible for such behaviors are of much interest in this field. Relationship between society and law and bearing of one upon the other (change in one affecting a change in other) also falls in this category.

    9. Sociology of Terrorism

    The Sociology of terrorism seeks to understand terrorism as a social phenomenon and how individuals as well as nation states address it (not to be confused with terrorism studies, a branch of Criminology, which often goes into the psychology of terrorism). Common topics part of the discourse of the sociology of terrorism include the War on Terrorism,” the Algerian War of Independence, and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, where within these contexts questions of power, the definition of terrorism, propaganda, nationality, the media, etc. are asked. it is a sub-field of psychology that attempts to discover how all these things come together and how Society comes to understand it.

    10. Social Psychology

    It is concerned with socialization processes of individual’s life. How an individual becomes a member of society by inculcating cultural norms in himself. Collective behavior like the public, mass, crowd, mob, strikes and other group movements are the studies of interest to sociologist. Public opinion and propaganda, and the techniques used also share this field.

    11. Social Psychiatry

    The fight between society and individual and its impacts upon the individual organization resulting in his mental disorders and anti-social behavior are the separate fields of inquiry. The situation thus produced between individual and Society is remedied in this field.

    12. Social Disorganization

    This section deals with the problems of Mal-adjustment such as the problems of crime and delinquency, poverty, ill health, population movement, vice, and prostitution Crime and delinquency are specially studied in Criminology. These and such other problems are mostly the product of Social disorganization, hence form a separate section for study under this very heading.

    13. Human Ecology and Demography

    Relationship among communities, neighborhoods and their spatial distribution are of major concern in this field. Population movement, changes and other characteristics also, studied with equal interest. Demographical changes also affect human ecology and this is equally important in this branch.
    There are so many other fields of specialization in sociology such as Folk Sociology, the1 Sociology of Art, Industrial Sociology, Medical Sociology, Military Sociology, and sociology of consumer behavior etc.

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