Friday 5 October 2018

Human Migration English Essay for FSc, BA, MA, CSS, PCS

 Human Migration English Essay for FSc, BA, MA, CSS, PCS
About 3 millions of people migrated to Pakistan from Afghanistan during 1980-90 due to political chaos. They remained in Pakistan for more than 10 years. They settled in camps in the areas of North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan. Pakistan had to bear the harden of food, shelter, health and other necessities of life until the settlement of a. political government in Afghanistan. This huge migration of people created problems of food, shelter, medicine, transportation and jobs in Pakistan. The political condition of Pakistan diverted toward United States of America who has been supporting Pakistan along with his allies with an economic aid. Pakistan fell in the court of those states which were against Russia. This diplomacy put Pakistan in tight corner. Where it became difficult to face Russia who is already an ally of India. After the return of Afghan refugees to their homeland, relations of U.S.A. with Pakistan could not remain at the same level. Millions of Biharis are still lying helpless in the camps of Bangladesh. They claim themselves to be Pakistanis and claim their migration to Pakistan. Bangladesh government does not take their responsibility as her citizens. Their socio-economic condition is very poor. They want permanent settlement of their citizenship in either of the two countries. They are facing a  problem of human migration lying in camps.

By military operations of Serbs on the Muslims of Bosnia- Herzegovina, the latter migrated from their homeland. Heavy torture and atrocities were rendered upon them. Their civil, physical, economic, political and religious rights were crushed. Inhuman treatment was made with their women and children.
Similarly, the Muslims of Chechnya were made targets of Russian atrocities. They also fled from their homes and' their mass migration put them in trouble.
For a long period, the people of Palestine left their homeland on military attacks by Israel. For years they remained under the control of Israel. They were not allowed even to offer prayer in Bait-ul-Muqaddas. Their settlements were like those of slaves. It was as result of their defeat in 6-days Arab-Israel war (1967) headed by Jamal Abdul Nasir, of Egypt (died on Sept. 28, 1970).
The war broke out on June 5, 1967. On the defeat of Arab forces, Israel took over the city of Jerusalem on June 28, 1967. Israel did not vacate the occupied territories besides various resolutions from UN Security Council These were the incidents which forced the Palestinian Arabs to leave their homeland and migrate to neighboring lands of Jordan and Syria.
At the end of World War-II (1939-49), Germany was divided into East and West in 1949. Huge population was migrated .in exchange between the two parts. Since then the people of Germany were divided by "Berlin Wall". They have been facing problem of human migration between the two parts.
Similarly, heavy loss of life and huge migration of people occurred between North and South Vietnam. The people shifted between the two parts according to their ideologies as Pro- Russian in North part and Pro-American in South Part. The people of Vietnam have been facing heavy trouble during the war (1964-68) by migration from one part to the other.
At, the creation of Pakistan on August 14, 1947, millions of Muslim refugees migrated to West and East Punjab (Pakistan) from East Punjab (India) and West Hindus shifted from West Punjab (Pakistan) and East Pakistan to India. Lacs of people mostly Muslims were murdered in this process of migration.
In held Kashmir, the Muslim population is leaving its homeland at the merciless murders of people, burning of their homes and in human treatment with women and children by the Indian forces. These people are shifting to Azad Kashmir and the area to Pakistan border.
The Kurds who migrated to Iraq from Turkey are also facing problems of life and provision of food, shelter and medicines. In Karachi (Pakistan), 70 to 80 thousand people enter the city annually from other parts of the country. Although now (1996) the situation is opposite due to murders by terrorism during the last several years. In 1959, the migrants constituted 82% of the total population. Within the last 30 years, the population growth rate in Karachi has been 7% annually. According to an estimate, 4% of the population is shifting from rural to urban areas of Pakistan.
Shifting of population from rural to urban areas has created a number of following problems in urban areas of. Pakistan:

  • Shortage of houses raised the cost and rent of houses. 
  • Slums developed in dark and narrow streets in which the problems of ill-health and anti-social activities developed. 
  • Load of heavy traffic created congestion on narrow roads creating traffic accidents. 
  • Admission in educational institutions became problem due to expansion of population. 
  • Food, vegetables, fruit and other edibles became short and dear. 
  • Hospital facilities decreased due to increase in diseases and patients. 
  • Due to anonymity, the old patterns of culture disappeared and the assets of culture lost importance in the changing life of cities. 
  • Types and extent of criminal activities increased due to vulnerabilities in life and culture. Ne•/ people entered the cities after committing crimes in other parts of the country. Police could not be able to attack them.

This discussion Oil human migration at national and international levels indicates it as a social problem of not only Pakistan but of many countries of the world.
To control migration between areas of a country it can be suggested that:

  • Facilities of higher education, better health, extension of roads, telephone and electricity can be provided in rural areas also. Installation of institutes of technology and industrial units can make rural areas similar to urban. Migration to urban areas will be reduced. 
  • Marketing facilities to be provided to rural people so that they may sell their crops at the same spot. Industrial and agricultural goods can be supplied to them at their homes with better transportation. This is being done in sufficient manner. 
  • Effect to make village life more attractive. 
  • Establishment of agro-based industries. 
  • Encouragement of NGOs in rural uplift schemes. 
  • Measure to check population growth. 

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